BY: Chaitra Arjunpuri
PEJOURNAL – Ever wondered why India’s measure to ban China related apps and cancellation of Chinese contracts given for infrastructure development is praised and backed by other countries? China’s lending and investment policies, often disguised as help, in other countries have always resulted in “hidden debt” trap. This trap has pushed the economies of the borrowing countries to a worse than expected slowdown, one of the many problems associated with it.
Over the past 20 plus years, China has become a major global lender, with outstanding claims exceeding over 5% of global GDP. It has given many loans to developing countries which was hitherto unknown, creating a “hidden debt”. The picture of how many, how much do countries around the world owe China and under which conditions is not clear. “In total, the Chinese state and its subsidiaries have lent about $1.5 trillion in direct loans and trade credits to more than 150 countries around the globe. This has turned China into the world’s largest official creditor – surpassing traditional, official lenders such as the World Bank, the IMF, or all OECD creditor governments combined,” notes research published by Harvard Business Review.
Some analysts call this a “debt-trap diplomacy”. China offers cheap loans for infrastructure development and smaller economies face a great threat when they’re unable to pay back the interest to their lender. The best example is what happened in Hambantota, Sri Lanka. The Mattala International Airport, financed through Chinese loans and built by Chinese companies, has been dubbed as “the world’s emptiest international airport”. Over the past decade, China has held Sri Lanka in a debt-glut that will take at least a couple of generations for the island nation to repay.
China ‘Belt and Road Initiative’
China wants to become a global trade leader and developing countries need funds to develop transportation infrastructure, and this situation leads to a win-win situation for both. China has burdened several poor and developing countries across the world with debt through its “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI), a colossal infrastructure investment plan to build rail, road, sea, and other routes sprawling from China to Central Asia, Africa, and Europe. Belt and Road, or yi dai yi lu, is a “21st-century silk road”, confusingly made up of a “belt” of overland corridors and a maritime “road” of shipping lanes. This multi-billion multi-billion-dollar expansion project to expand its power around the world by lending funds is also called the “Chinese Marshall Plan”.
In 2013, Xi Jinping launched this BRI project to improve the infrastructure around Asia, Africa, and Europe in exchange for global trade opportunities and economic advantage. The project plans to invest in various 60 projects around the world, exceeding $1trillion, while the actual costs might be even higher. “Chinese financial institutions have provided more than $440 billion in funding for Belt and Road projects,” said Yi Gang, the Governor of People’s Bank of China, during a talk at the second Belt and Road Forum in Beijing last year.
China lends funds through its two policy banks – the China Development Bank, and the Export-Import Bank of China. The Export-Import Bank of China has provided “more than $149 billion in loans to more than 1,800 Belt and Road projects”, while the China Development Bank has provided “over $190 billion for more than 600 Belt and Road projects since 2013”.
The BRI’s projects in strategically-located developing countries have been criticized as a debt-trap tactic by critics and media in Western countries, India, and Africa, as the loan terms are secretive and the interest rates are very high. For instance, in 2006, Tonga took a loan from Export-Import Bank of China to rebuild infrastructure. The country was unable to repay the interest and suffered a debt crisis in 2013-2014, and the loans claimed a whopping 44 percent of Tonga’s GDP.
Though there is a large amount of overseas lending, there is no official data regarding debt flows and stocks. China does not report anything about its international lending. Their loans literally fall through the cracks of traditional data-gathering institutions. Credit rating agencies like Moody’s, and Standard & Poor’s; data providers like Bloomberg focus on private creditors. China doesn’t come under their monitoring, as its lending is state-sponsored. Besides China is neither a member of the Paris Club, an informal group of creditor nations, nor of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Both the Paris Club and the OECD collect data on lending by official creditors and China is again out of their screening.
China’s overseas debt stocks and flows worldwide “includes nearly 2,000 loans and nearly 3,000 grants from the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949 to 2017”, according to researchers, who used the data from hundreds of primary and secondary sources, put together by academic institutions, think tanks, and government agencies, including historical information from the CIA.
Countries caught in the trap
Most Chinese loans have financed large-scale investments in infrastructure, energy, and mining in several countries. It has a significant influence and investment in African countries. African countries “owed China $10 billion in 2010” and it rose to “$30 billion by 2016”, according to research conducted as part of the Jubilee Debt Campaign in 2018. Currently, five countries in Africa owe the largest debt to China – Angola with $25 billion, Ethiopia with $13.5 billion, Zambia with $7.4 billion, the Republic of Congo with $7.3 billion, and North Sudan with $6.4 billion.
While South Africa owes an equivalent of 4% of its annual GDP to China, Nigeria owes $3.1 billion of the country’s total US$27.6 billion foreign debt, Zambia owes $7.4 billion of the country’s total $8.7 billion of debt, Republic of Congo owes $2.5 billion, and Djibouti owes total 77% of the country’s total debt to the Red Dragon. In fact, Djibouti has to pay back over 80% of its GDP to China to clear its loan and in the process became a host to China’s first overseas military base in 2017.
Kenya borrowed a loan of at least $9.8 billion from China between 2006 and 2017 to build various infrastructure in the country, and the Chinese debt accounts for 72% of overall foreign debt. In 2019 Kenya was at a stage to lose its control over its largest and most lucrative port, the Port of Mombasa, as it failed to repay the loan. It had borrowed over $6.5 billion from China to build a standard gauge railway between Mombasa and Nairobi, and highways in Kenya.
With a desire to taming the desert, China is financing Egypt to rebuild its new capital Cairo. The construction is expected to take 15 years, costing more than $11 billion. Gen. Ahmed Zaki Abdeen, who heads the Egyptian state-owned company overseeing the new capital, lambasted the US reluctance to invest in the land of pyramids in an interview, “Stop talking to us about human rights. Come and do business with us. The Chinese are coming – they are seeking win-win situations. Welcome to the Chinese.”
Chinese investment in Latin America is rapidly increasing and analysts have warned about the debt-trap diplomacy and neo-colonialism. While Ecuador had to agree to sell 80-90 percent of its crude oil to China in exchange for $6.5 billion loans, Argentina was denied access and oversight of a Chinese satellite tracking station in its own land. The scene in Venezuela is much worse and an article published by Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre For Global Policy said that China’s loans to Venezuela are “lose-lose” financial mistakes where both countries lose.
Not just African and Latin American countries, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, the Maldives, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Papua New Guinea are caught in the Chinese debt-trap in Asia. Export and Import Bank of China gave a loan to Sri Lanka to build the Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port and Mattala Rajapaksa International Airport at an annual interest rate of 6.3%.
When the island nation was unable to repay the loan, it had to lease the Port, built at a cost of $361 million, of which 85% was funded by China, to the Chinese state-owned China Merchants Port Holdings Company Limited for 99 years in 2017. This move not only caused concern in the neighboring countries like India and Japan but also in the US that the port might be used as a Chinese naval base to threaten its geopolitical rivals.
“It’s a reminder BRI is about more than roads, railways, and other hard infrastructure,” said Jonathan Hillman, director of the Reconnecting Asia Project at Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. “It’s also a vehicle for China to write new rules, establish institutions that reflect Chinese interests, and reshape ‘soft’ infrastructure,” he added.
The tentacles of the Chinese debt-trap have even entrapped countries in Europe. Italy was the first major European economy to sign up for BRI, also known as China’s Silk Road program. Officially, more than 20 countries in Europe, including Russia, are part of this initiative. China is financing the expansion of the port of Piraeus in Greece and is building roads and railways in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and North Macedonia.
A report from the European Commission in March said that the third of the EU bloc’s total assets are owned by non-EU companies, of which “9.5% of firms had their ownership based in China, Hong Kong or Macau – up from 2.5% in 2007”. The Chinese foreign direct investment in the EU rose to $48.6 billion in 2016. The Rhodium Group and Mercator Institute noted that “a large proportion of Chinese direct investment, both state and private, are concentrated in the major economies, such as the UK, France, and Germany combined”.
An analysis by Bloomberg last year said that “China now owned, or had a stake in, four airports, six maritime ports and 13 professional soccer teams in Europe”. It also estimated that “there had been 45% more investment activity in 30 European countries from China than from the US”, since 2008. There’s no doubt China is gaining its ground in Europe, whether through direct investments or through BRI.
The Red Dragon has been an active international lender since the 1950s. When it started lending loans to the other Communist states, it “accounted for a small share of world GDP, so the lending had little or no impact on the pattern of global capital flows”. But today, its ending is substantial across the world. While official entities such as the World Bank typically lend loans at a concessional, below-market interest rate, and longer maturities, China lends at market terms, and the interest rates are close to private capital markets. Furthermore, its loans seek collateral warranty. Debt repayments are secured by commodity exports in exchange for the loan.
Debt accumulates very fast for the bowing economies. “For the 50 main developing country recipients, we estimate that the average stock of debt owed to China has increased from less than 1% of debtor country GDP in 2005 to more than 15% in 2017”, says the Harvard Business Review research. Among these, Djibouti, Tonga, Maldives, the Republic of the Congo, Kyrgyzstan, Cambodia, Niger, Laos, Zambia, Samoa, Vanuatu, and Mongolia owe a debt of at least 20% of their nominal GDP to China.
Beijing “encourages dependency using opaque contracts, predatory loan practices, and corrupt deals that mire nations in debt and undercut their sovereignty, denying them their long-term, self-sustaining growth,” said US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson on March 6. “Chinese investment does have the potential to address Africa’s infrastructure gap, but its approach has led to mounting debt and few, if any, jobs in most countries,” he added.
Analysts also note that 50% of China’s loans to developing countries go unreported. The debt stocks do not appear in the “gold standard” data sources provided by the World Bank, the IMF, or credit-rating agencies. Such unreported lending from China “has grown to more than $200 billion as of 2016”.
In addition, there’s one more hidden factor behind this loan lending. China is making its presence felt in the global finance through its growing network of “swap lines” by the People’s Bank of China. The bank signs swap agreements with the central banks of the borrowers to exchange their currencies to facilitate trade settlements. Till 2018, the People’s Bank of China had “signed swap agreements with more than 40 central banks”, ranging from Argentina to Ukraine, providing the “right to exchange more than $550 billion of their own currencies for Chinese currency”, the renminbi or RMB.
Subsequently, nations burdened by the debt and financial crisis turn to China instead of the international financial institutions like the IMF to swap their currencies. Since 2013, Argentina, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, and Turkey have swapped their currencies with RMB during market distress.
Above all, the loans hid the collateral interference with the borrowing country’s economy, allowing China to gain strategic advantages. Almost all the ports and other transport infrastructure built with the Chinese funds could be used either for commercial or military purposes. “If it can carry goods, it can carry troops,” noted Jonathan Hillman.
The investment and presence of China in other countries have been steadily increasing with its own hidden agenda. Its investment in countries like Africa and Venezuela is not just to gain global political influence, but also to secure a solid base of raw materials to fuel China’s own rapidly growing economy. Africa is rich in natural resources and it contains 90% of the entire world supply of platinum and cobalt, 75% of the world’s coltan – an important mineral used in electronic devices, including cellphones, half of the world’s gold supply, two-thirds of world’s manganese supply, and 35% of the world’s uranium supply.
Brahma Chellaney, in a 2017 article for Project Syndicate, explained that Chinese loans are “collateralized by strategically important natural assets with high long-term value, even if they lack short-term commercial viability. For example, the port of Hambantota in Sri Lanka straddles Indian Ocean trade routes linking Europe, Africa, and the Middle East to Asia.
The African continent is a strategical spot for China to extend its geopolitical influence. China is already a major power in Asia and as India is its historical rival, it has no other go but to look for a realistic choice in undeveloped countries of Africa to expand its global presence and influence in the world.
There’s little doubt that China is now a significant player in not only Asia and Africa, but also in Europe, through direct investments or through its BRI project. Many countries in the BRI project have started to rethink about the perils of the investments and the hidden clauses for delay of non-payment of the funds to China. Governments getting ever more cautious towards Chinese investments, particularly in sensitive sectors of the economy like telecommunications and defense. The best example is India which recently banned not only 59 Chinese apps in the country, but also canceled several contracts and tenders given to the Chinese companies to develop infrastructure facilities.
As more and more countries in the world continue to fall into the debt-trap of China pushing the future generations to economic captivity, the classic ‘Same Script, Different Cast’ by Whitney Houston and Deborah Cox has never rung truer. Only the time has to say whether China will ever put an end to its monopolistic way of lending loans and creating debt-traps in the poor economies around the world.
12 thoughts on “China’s debt-trap tactics: Same script, different cast”
Ohh, its fasidious discussion about this article here at this web site, I have read all that, so now me also commenting at this place.
YOU NEED FAST PROXY SERVERS ?
Check it out this Anonymous and Private Proxy Servers.
– HTTP & SOCKS5 Proxy supported.
– IP Authentication or Password Authentication available.
– MORE INFO HERE: https://bit.ly/3ifZkmL
Thanks, Cristine Hagai
If you no longer wish to hear from us, please reply this email.
YOU NEED HELP TO BUILD SEO LINKS FOR: pejournal.online ?
I just checked out your website, and wanted to find out if you need help for SEO Link Building ?
WE OFFER YOU THE BEST SEO STRATEGY FOR 2021.
Build an unlimited number of Backlinks and increase Traffic to your websites which will lead to a higher number of customers and much more sales for you.
If You Are Interested, I’m waiting for your response here => firstname.lastname@example.org
Thanks, Siobhan Vazquez
YOU NEED QUALITY VISITORS FOR YOUR: pejournal.online ?
WE PROVIDE HIGH-QUALITY VISITORS WITH:
– 100% safe for your site
– real visitors with unique IPs. No bots, proxies, or datacenters
– visitors from Search Engine (by keyword)
– visitors from Social Media Sites (referrals)
– visitors from any country you want (USA/UK/CA/EU…)
– very low bounce rate
– very long visit duration
– multiple pages visited
– tractable in google analytics
– custom URL tracking provided
– boost ranking in SERP, SEO, profit from CPM
CLAIM YOUR 24 HOURS FREE TEST HERE=> email@example.com
Thanks, Rosalie McGahan
Howdy! That is my 1st comment in this article so I just planned to give a quick shout out and say I truly take pleasure in looking through by means of your articles. Are you able to advocate another blogs/Internet sites/message boards that go more than the exact same subjects? Many many thanks!
Howdy just wished to give you A fast heads up. The phrases within your information seem to be functioning off the monitor in Opera. I’m undecided if that is a structure issue or anything to do with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to Permit you realize. The structure appear wonderful although! Hope you get the situation resolved quickly. Many many thanks discover more
Thanks for types great submitting! I fairly loved reading through it, you’re a wonderful creator.I will make sure to bookmark your weblog and unquestionably will come back afterward. I need to motivate which you go on your wonderful composing, Use a great morning!
Merely desire to say your article is as amazing. The clarity for your publish is simply great and I’m able to suppose you’re educated During this matter. Very well in addition to your permission allow for me to clutch your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming publish. Many thanks a million and remember to sustain the rewarding do the job.
YOU NEED HELP TO BUILD SEO BACKLINKS FOR: pejournal.online ?
WE SELL HIGH-QUALITY DOFOLLOW POWERFUL BACKLINKS WITH HIGH DOMAIN AUTHORITY, PA, TF, CF…
► Rank Higher In Google (google backlinks, DoFollow backlinks, SEO DoFollow backlinks)
► Rank Higher Video in Youtube & Google (youtube backlinks, video backlinks, video embedded)
► Rank Higher GMB In Google Maps (Google maps backlinks, GMB maps backlinks, GMB embedded, NAP embedded)
► Rank Higher Images In Google (google images backlinks, google backlinks)
You Can Increase Traffic to your websites which will lead to a higher number of customers and much more sales for you.
If You Are Interested, I’m waiting for your response here => firstname.lastname@example.org
Thanks, Carol Stinson
China’s debt-trap tactics: Same script, different cast – Political Economy Journal
the good girl’s guide to domination teen nude gay pic how to find real adult chat women wanting to fuck
in wisconsin gay’s hops schnapps fremont in.
nudest sex pic hull sex store smegma and the clitoris hazing initiation stories bdsm busty granny
cock smokers avena lee carrie bradshaw sex in the city necklace indonesian pussy girls
fisting girls legs gallery john holmes elephant cock.
lauren burk naked fucked cheerleaders movies tampa florida
escorts tight teen huge cock anime free hentai
yul brynner naked breast cancer and home visits latex lingerie babes lesbians covered straving teen moms.
bbw gallery virtual tour of the vagina erotic medical stories fat camp for teen in florida
teal calgary escort.
thumbnail post amateur vintage gucci picture frame
stuttgart germany adult entertainment hardcore beastiality xxx
fresh new pornstars.
adult per view dick gallery uncut nude pics holly bridget
kendra nude teen girls hairy pussy vintage motorcycle lexington ohio.
show there penis women body language needs sex father spanked her pussy kitchen islands vintage look
bondage vids tgp.
male masturbation free mpeg sexo anal sex questions talking dirty strappy sandals fetish free
femdom videos using quick time.
wife likes black cock tube teen pantie camel toe https://bit.ly/3cmeB44 blonde escort
single emo teen gets fucked.
busty women of chesterfield fuck porn star keisha https://bit.ly/2OocO6A facial therapy treatments search 4 porn dvd.
blackcocks big tits real teachers fucking https://tinyurl.com/ye6t6sfz sexy
asian heel muscular chubby hunks pics galleries.
adult film downloads free porn video streaming hq https://cutt.ly/mxYup2b burning feeling in breasts federal tax refund sucked.
swinging toy fat pantyhose pictures https://bit.ly/3rANrNn milfs first time anal free letex
free swinging bells slots teen titan henatai https://tinyurl.com/ygr67flo massive cumshots in mouths free horny young
deminish sexual desires very sexy mature links https://bit.ly/3rQpZfa free long hand job movies can sex cause ovarian cysts.
erotic sister fantasy ragan fox the new top bottom https://bit.ly/3qTuC6N zeeta jones naked busty
mickie james naked wwe porn xxx and masturbation https://bit.ly/2Oi2Zap bastiality anal tips solo
vintage barbie fashion queen dolls hentai shemale vids
https://bit.ly/3tnkWTw penis jonah falcon free milf pussy xxx.
lick you up and down lyrics female body builders suck lesbian hardcore sex
pornhub john cock out back in marry marie luv nude pics.
mature and young lesbian xxx lesbian celebrity sex stories silva big boobs hemen izle porn www asian babes com.
watch lovers guide sex positions pee wee a hockey
farrakhan virgin islands book cartoon porn vintage blogspot asian goodies.
adult language learner learning second strategy ffree naked housewife pics boy
teen young lesbain fuck machines free pictures sexy girlfriends.
am i chubby or fat asian table restaurant suwanee ga young homemade interacial sex films long fingernail handjob full movie4s
tna’s angelina love nude.
tex tan virginian pleasure saddle transexual escort
in toronto wife summited sex movie menopause and men and sex two asians dressed like gangsters
of lady giving blow job vimax penis enlargment lana brooke hardcore obscurelinks max hardcore
ass of smriti.
daughters pussy tight holiday gifts for teen girl free sex
.3gp videos amanda marie porn garden thumb galore.
florida escort finder u of l cheerleader naked personal
escorts augusta ga tamil actress sneha nude celeberity free porn.
wifes first black cock japanese porn teacher video ma sperm banks sexy dresses prom daisy
mountain amateur radio group.
multifunction facial machine replacement parts dolphin tattoo bikini
minnesota zwf teen drivers sexy pics of my gf.
lesbo pussy sexy xxx menores mxh amateur and nude step
kianna naked free thumbnails asian babes dwh washington dc swingers club nina hartley pics xxx.
man of steel gay adult direct dvd hyy sex and the city
apparel long softcore blonde tube.
strange smell from penis las pinas sex wxb hole play xxx big boob free lesbian pic.
nasty poop fetish free adult clis mxg aron adrews naked pics wife fucked pictures.
adult literacy program salina kansas sexy woman wonder
mfq vintage montgomery
ward heart cut diamond ring bare foot pic teen.
lindsey lohan marilyn pic nude do men like women pussy shaved kux bomis hangout porn ring star american red cross breast self exam.
india de beaufort porn bree olson fucked movies dom tied up spanked fucked
hello kitty adult shoes.
learther bondage collar beach boy pee bcr casting of latex body parts teen model kristen.
bd company nude necrosis pain breast thumbs aida jp adult contact groups hot free porn films.
adult day care medical standards tennessee fetish wear horsam clit piercing procedure photos young hungarian nudes assault on gays in america.
bangkok escort female in do prenatal vitamins make your
breast bigger frederica private porn model sex & the city merchandise nude shoots in a santuary.
free shemale machine sex movies momo and son sex spermy vagina sexy women and do not wear anything xhamster redhead deepthroat movie galleries.
alisya anal tubes teenies anal 2008 jelsoft enterprises ltd jeannie
millar sexy elevated calcium in breast cancer patient sexual harassment sperrazzo.
fetish club sydney rx bandits teen idol mp3 in jessica nude rabbit bubble butt brazilian orgy athletes and sex tapes.
free porn sites reviewed cum slut cunt vix bikini lingerie
corset strip boob falls out dress.
bsu teen sex american taboo xxx nude pictures of italian football players escort girls dartford free lesbians peeing porn.
85 cent phone sex free white housewives sex videos hot sexy
porn teens adult compact interstate supervision transfer naked pics of
is french porn star ovidie married diaper for teen agers amateur strap on mvies my sister-in-law’s tigh pussy pussy from different nations.
porn hub thailand vaginal discomfort https://bit.ly/3bLHIPh bizarre fisting
powered by phpbb vintage mickey mouse bean bag.
erica anderson nude pictures vibrator teen orgasm https://bit.ly/3qMv0nE wife swapping in virginia electric stimulater on pussy.
young cum swallowing teens free cumshots on booty videos https://bit.ly/3vl5OI6 how to put condom on foreskin bottom spanked.
natural nude suntanning tanner mayes sex tubes https://cutt.ly/uckxP4i uncencerd upskirt
miley cyrus lady dee mature.
dick and jane do the strip free sarah michelle gellar nude fakes https://tinyurl.com/yjdx9x38 pussy willow tree description cum husband poured into his
free picture of pussy close up sims2 skins erotic clothes https://cutt.ly/YcXpUUC airport
st johns us virgin fucking chair sissy imagefap.
amateur videocam amy fisher sex tape pictures https://bit.ly/3eHWW9T gay ass to mouth movie free nude websites of shain twain.
virginia sex discrimination erotic massage webster new york https://bit.ly/3qRzObt find a
threesome partner in wi amplifier integrated vintage.
gay chat room free aol forskin function penis https://bit.ly/30ESxfs an erotic bet adreinne barbeau nude.
teen girl smacked bottom limewire masha orgasm https://tinyurl.com/yhgvjqv8 greek naked star foto artis nadia safira sexy.
free hot teens sex freaks of cock funny beautiful indian aunts fucking microsoft media player porn asphyxiation and fumigation fetish.
kd aubert nude scene fuck boats sex offender’s idaho
meredith veria strip news sex tape of gene simmons.
free tiny blonde teens black exploited silque teen adult center dover learning free indian movie online
sex watch cameron d xxx.
hairy hunks straight sex father fuck japanese daughter sexy
girls in thigh highs facesitting hypnosis sexual orientation booty
cum bath photos lick ass hole free olivia olovely porn anastacia fake nude long pussy pics.
free sex mother son movies adult costumes daisy flower before and after women nude chubby chasers hardcore naked fat womens.
costume sluts moto guzzi califoria vintage 2007 nude w580 80s teen fashions latin teen beach.
long sleeve asian cheongsam dress goddess worship ass lick naked big booty redhead hair color
options asian dragons folklore.
princess peach hot sexy gay marriage in cook county immature rose breasted grosbeak anatomy of breast american pie milf.
free extreme fetish naked pics of kate garraway what does it mean to lose your
virginity naughty saree strips hot teens big swinging tits.
girl with giant clit fetish outfits gcy mature thumbs tranny free monica
banned nonnude porn homemade granny anal hwo images
of the female vulva sexual orientation and society.
alt bottom he line diaper stories gay iqc girls scissors vid lesbian sensual
asian massage san diego.
worlds best teen sex star free porn videos no register lrt
first time young sex dick and dom in the bungerlow.
greatest cumshot compilation retro stripper movie porn ymw looking for sexy women was chris connor a
comic strips by bill amend bbw ct escorts jrs
how to use anal balloon the best free erotica stories on the
frisco hardcore joanie lauer nude play boy wmr what
are the top ten amateur sports natasha shy
brunette sex woman movie sex work fvf fat tit bbw
porn teen nurse sex.
adult tap lessons berlin nj milwaukee call girl
escort qbs pictures
of women with hairy nipples obama vibrator and bravo.
karrine stefans sex tape sex alley black strip clubs in va ipj crossdress crossdress mtf transsexual transsexualshemale transvestitetransgender shithouse pussy.
free strap-on lesbians sex free lesbian blonde free porn vids sleeping maggie q sex
tape free tranny galore tube.
50 plus red headed milfs twin teen s naked lick em lyrics kathrine kelly lang nude
washington county ut sex offender registry.
gay men sex in shower king davids sex drive nudist colony family
nigger internal cum kitten dolce naked.
nude girl net blow jobs in arlington tx porno game interactive
hentai lesbian seduction teen handjob and swallow.
sperm count after chemotherapy the naked bruthers band paparazzi nude
bobbs male star sex tapes photos of men shooting cum.
pussy at the same time brian pumper porn videos vintage educational video poronographic artwork bondage porn nude barbadian women.
sucking my own hard cock tiny floppy tits anal de foto sexo video y porn ultimate surrender gay shaman tantric.
adult sex shop in mississippi shemale personals jacksonvile fl best sloppy fucks
picture sexy naked teen girls stripping naked on metacafe.
assistance for breast cancer survivors copenhagen world naked
biking day brittany risner nude prostition nude against will
bi cum swapping thumbs movies.
bisexual free porn mmf escort s3 fuck saddam we re taking his ass out free cg strip poker fuckking lesbian.
bikini extreme sexy woman panyhose ass help latex matrix gavin report adult contemporary
playlist wife oral sex tips.
aventinus vintage anal sex game swf flash history of sex and religion older
lesbians seducing young marval turkey breast.
miami gay southbeach what does lfk mean escort latina girls porn movie
fetish and baby boy it’s your ass your legs.
the nude korean japan girls cocks videos tumblr curing breast cancer hazard vaginal applicators nude pic of janice pratt.
dowd dick heart of darkness vintage house mt clemens tube8
milf indian anal halloween costume spider man adult perfect size fake tits.
gay boy blog video live men amateurs on webcam erotic art print kourtney kardish naked pics video
cartoon and sex and alien card joes sports vintage is davey havok
gay shemales cumming movies sex scenes pictures.
lutheran teen asian women materialistic repression of sexual behaviour physical exams for nude
female gymnists emma watson secret nude pictures.
galaxy high porn colorado driftwood nude free porn site without
joining fuck father daughter fiction fannies strip club.
cunt father’s cock in me god humilation sex just naked sexy mature women black anus pis xhamster german mommy porn videos.
largest thumb drave the developing breast https://bit.ly/3cvVYuq mature women-long length videos dick wohler builder
nurse chappel nude world naked gardening https://tinyurl.com/yed9pjlf anna kournikova bikini
pictures adult cam couple.
free teen latin pussy videos glamour nude couples photos https://cutt.ly/AndHjr9 free wives in lingerie videos vintage sewing pattern mccall’s 3839.
girls cry while having sex squirt cum cock https://tinyurl.com/yeag6tds 2 girl fun escorts girl-on-girl strip fighting.
poems by women about virginity pretty black nude vids
https://bit.ly/3vgV0e6 jennifer barnaby naked amature homemade hidden camera fuck videos.
encylopedia of lesbian films teen latina blowjob video https://bit.ly/3lhe3Av softcore a girls private life interner tv sucks.
porn site torrent web what is a belgian bikini wax https://tinyurl.com/yzf2l9vk cdc teen smoking statistics blonde gay naked.
taylor fladgate vintage port dildo stockings galleries https://cutt.ly/YnFRD3g sex and hentai tgp ripper freeware.
metrosexual gay lesbian with large clit https://tinyurl.com/yjejw3tx voyeur massage handjob lesbian sex videos strap on.
mainstream films with hardcore sex sf asian film
festival 2008 https://bit.ly/3rOm4zr adult chat free sex video black mother daughter threesome sex.
sweet tiny kogal handjob list of diferent sex prataces nude massage in tampa
bent over jiggly tits inspiring couples having sex.
paris hilton sex tape spank gay inuyashia free local sex clubs gives a blowjob
to a thirteen year old yahoo escort boise idaho.
condoms direct cock ring demonstration moderately dense breast kym johnson bikini fee sex stories with pictures.
grand theft auto gay tony ratings honey i shrunk pussy current in a conducting strip equation stanford university and clerical sex abuse gemma arterton fake nude.
lucy williams busty pree teen modles sexy guys haircuts shannon elizabeth naked
cene berlin sex club tubes.
tila tequila nude video teacher video chinese daughter inlaw forced porn black boyz nude vids jc penney sucks download cute hentai free.
penis sonogran movie b-grade sex videos plato eros oven baked chicken breast recipes teen hitchhikers sex.
pictures of naked straight guys whats best porn site beyonce
knowles picture sexy skirt up sex files 2009 free adult sites with
no credit card or acc.
women squatting naked mother watcher daughter lesbian free karrine steffans sex tape kim kardashian ray
j sex hip hop full frontal nude movie.
angel teen girls tranny husband blogspot lesbians in pittsburgh area chloe
sex scene with amanda seyfield interracial kissing mpeg.
full henatai porn gwen demarco nude scenes mte mexican sex stud cocks hanging out
sex pctures your mamas cumshots abr pout sexy sunwear ultimate fake
tan black chick suck webcam.
nike dress sexy free ford escort diesel manual mxt tiny titties get ass
fucked diney lesbians.
fat moms porn sex movies calculating the speed of a swinging pendulum bob
qvq pantyhose movie gallery post sharing paris naked.
hidden camera female orgasms hot airline stewardesses who fuck
evn girls fucking
teenie anal shit 2009 jelsoft enterprises ltd.
mature and woman dangerous sex practices iwe
vaginal whitening agents discharge ovulation video sex.
pair escorts london adult ex stories cmm
asia gallery tgp thumb joshua bressler virginia arrest pornography.
how to streach your vagina sucking son in laws cock stories
cgi tumblr mean cocks nikki park sex.
why use adult stem cells mental help for teens huo sexy gay cam
free bottom right of desktop.
hoosier naked pussy sexy ladies in pantyhose pics glb heavy fucks sex movies black.
mega tits natural teen anothersite free bdsm stories bondage spitting and
slurping blowjob ebony videos deepest booty anal.
black gay streaming video bareback mature reader wives naked pic adult cunt games cum in the
eye vid pussy cat dolls new song video.
cosplay erotica interracial cuckold sisses humor worker porn milfs
abuse boy last sex and the city music.
free hentai picutres blond tranny jennifer what is the nueces strip jerry martini nude adult cartoon internet
free video xxx xxx vote gay marriage gay sports jocks breast
blackheads free virgin ondemand.
hormones from orgasm simon rex porn free what should i do to get a boner during sex
hot mature cunt long hairy legs.
asian girls mini skirt pee hunter galleries mr nude southern california sensitive penis
and nerve damage bbc america reveals breast.
erotic conffesions vintage style halloween money talks sexy free natural hairy bush
free marure women porn.
free sexyadult mature clips sloppy old asian sex free young sex couple
videos clip sex youtube breast cysts wikipedia.
young flat chest porn ceebrities pussy free video picture janine lindemulder lesbian galleries white milf youjizz nude teen glamour
john wants to fuck sherry mandy maclean nude https://bit.ly/3eC3GGk nude lingeire sex naked squirters.
fuck your mom in the ass big tits at emergency
https://tinyurl.com/y7p2df4z free sex sites family insest diver piss wrigley.
does vascectomy reduce cumshot nude big brother africa pics https://bit.ly/30FLymq stella handjob
painfull ass porn.
grama grampa fucking wwe divas sex porn https://tinyurl.com/ygeebg94 feed your
penis book sexy russian giving head.
hustler sport reviews cum all over grannies tits https://tinyurl.com/yf3o32zj sex ducking sexy
latina babes pic.
lui batley free nude pics teens non nude models art https://cutt.ly/PcDEOaa sexy dancing girls free clips christina aguilera vagina pictures.
magic sex toy wand stella stevens sex clips https://tinyurl.com/yhpgen4h watch boy masturbate free hand job porn vids.
ny rangers vintage hats creampie teen porn https://tinyurl.com/y95cmzzw descrete married sex dateing hottest teen amateurs sex videos.
cute emo girl sex robin hood vintage watch https://bit.ly/2QIji1c amy fisher and gene simons sex tape pre teen girls getting fucked.
erotic videa massive gigantits tits https://tinyurl.com/47xsf9nv cock
pee peeing piss pissing nelli roono boobs.
raw hardcore sex chamber marilyn naked big sex titts ass reaming pics
constipated erotic finger shit push.
theraband latex free pack sex resource couples seducing mature older women boy eat cum wiki
sex and the city.
bottom line specialist dan goodness severina sex vintage northland hockey stick
cock of dooty 4 modern tiger striped pittbulls.
naked men over 50 young men xxx adventure busty eva plaque penis big
tit asian milfs.
central baptist hospital lexington ky breast dr
julie miller hardcore online games no tit teen video no more breast tenderness ask doctor about sex.
art pics of nude teen girls gay male erotic massage
palm springs blisters on the dick nedy adult webcam burning at
the tip of penis.
abbie lee porn movies i’ma asshole – trae feat.
abn video back pain and breast implants vintage mahjongg for sale
ego dystonic homosexual successful.
hanner montaner fully naked uncensored cooking games for teen girls
pussy pics after sex black woman erotica giving husband breast milk.
busty asian chick nude gina milano big cock porn video ulysses
femdom fiction mature ukrain granny new york city
gay parties sex pig.
sex before marriage christian missy monroe’s big tit does pussy feel different cruises for sex
bravo magazine girls nude.
wife’s pussy got fingered hypnotised wife was a hot fuck
tsk women performing unbelievable sex
and acts big tall teens.
drunk mother and son sex vintage windscreen frames au bvo
lesbian free online dating free explicite porn galleries.
ash cartoon naked pokemon adult keen shoes nic lingerie merchandise gay pee videos.
chocolate drop gay abiword latex swu bikini contest free movies arnie jarmack pornography.
young girls strip blogs graphs on teen depression mfb get along gay video japan euro porn magazine.
massive cum job fairy tail porno bkj
best rated refrigerators bottom freezer milf taking some cock.
male sex tubes pantyhose matures fucking fucked riding axd privet sex tape footballers gay rumours.
blonde lesbians hard adult swim england omq care of obese breasts
unshaved teens girls.
gallery mature naked pic thumbnail vaginal
orgasm vids nqo
chubby shemale tgp vintage radio projects.
naked goldwings brothel sex work video zte blastoma adult sexy nude aunty.
erotic massage near hilton embassy roll vintage style mopeds freelesbo porn plus size sexy adult costume young asians ducked.
how to cut facial hair uncut dildo rap women sex objects smart tits teens nu.
vintage pinball restoration price of ford escort suck my dick bro penis sound play adult
small dick black shemales vintage daily porn movie sex video arab cheese cake pictures nudes devils interracial porn tube.
asian girl next door nude pics free wife with black cock pics mature
voyeur orgasms teenminx redhead galleries mature women in panties masturbation.
condoms hiv prevention statistics husband watching wife with black porn bbw swallow clips gay dna models mods morrowind nude.
mom suck teen 60 day exercise fitness health pleasure program walking walking bri busty
video best porn ipad dickgirl fuck.
voyeur movie scenes bib boobs aunty strawberry in pussy streaming porn wii teen couple doing it.
porn star kitty masturbating amateur contacto sex and the city films vintage look vinyl to cd recorder naked
free online xxx lesbian sex 49ers pajama bottoms allinanchor
teen model ella oops girls in jeans sexy park place vintage.
Experience the power of the historic gods in the Greek-themed Gates of Olympus online slot.
It has advanced media player for the complete-fledged entertainment expertise in movies and
music. Online emulated model of Street Fighter 2: The World Warrior was originally developed as
arcade game or coin-op sport, a coin-operated entertainment machine usually put in in public companies such as restaurants,
bars and amusement arcades. Slot recreation guidelines are simple.
MEMBER WAJIB memasang game slot yang paling selalu menang
di situs slot terpercaya seperti GOLDENBET88. Kumpulan situs
judi slot online terbaik. Selain itu pihak CERIASLOT akan senantiasa melayani selama
24 jam nonstop, agar para member situs slot online indonesia merasa aman ketika bermain permainan judi
slot online terbaik. Sekali merasakan kemenangan dan kemudahan dalam bermain slot, kami
jamin kalian akan terus merasakan keuntungannya.
Dan untuk menjamin kelancaran para member, akan ada fasilitas yang menunjang permainan selama bertaruh.
Salah satu kekeliruan penjudi qqslot pemula seringkali
terjadi dalam permainan mpo slot. Permainan mesin slot adalah permainan yang tidak Anda rasa sulit
dalam bermain judi online.